© Patrick Rohr / Helvetas

The Rohingya in Bangladesh - the world's largest refugee camp

© Patrick Rohr / Helvetas

On March 5, 2023, fire broke out in three Rohingya refugee camps in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. At least 2,000 shelters were destroyed, leaving more than 12,000 people homeless and without their belongings.

In each camp, volunteers who had previously been trained in firefighting were among the first to respond and save lives. The training was organized by Helvetas and Migrant Offshore Aid Station and supported by the World Food Program, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit and UNHCR.

We are currently assessing the extent of the damage and providing assistance to those who have lost everything.

Helvetas has been active in Bangladesh for around 20 years. Since 2017, when hundreds of thousands of Rohingya fled to Bangladesh from neighboring Myanmar, Helvetas has also been providing emergency aid on the ground. The approximately one million refugees are currently particularly threatened by the heavy monsoon rains, which have caused entire rows of huts to slide down. At the same time, the fight against COVID-19 is ongoing.

It is now important to take preventive measures, to protect people from the virus, and to enable them to return to normal life with the help of medium and long-term projects. For example, Helvetas is promoting the cultivation of vegetables on and next to simple huts so that refugee families, who often suffer from malnutrition, can eat better, which also strengthens their immune systems.

Biogas from latrines

During the first acute phase of emergency relief, Helvetas distributed hygiene kits. Since then, Helvetas has been active in many different areas in cooperation with local and international partners, for example in providing sanitation, including the construction of 320 latrines which are now used by around 10,000 people. Thanks to a simple conversion unit, the latrines generate biogas which supplies energy predominantly to the communal kitchens.

«This is an important change. Since Helvetas built this kitchen, we haven't had to worry about whether we will be able to find wood for cooking,» explains Nasrin (name changed). «We used to have to walk eight to ten kilometres to look for wood in the hills, or just buy it. We can now buy vegetables and potatoes with the money we've saved.»

Bangladesch_Rohingya | © Helvetas
© Helvetas
© Zahid Hasan
© Zahid Hasan


The Fight Against COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the already challenging situation. Living in the simplest huts, close together, with few water taps and sanitary facilities, it is hardly possible to keep hygiene and distance rules. Medical care is also not ideal, isolation and quarantine are hardly possible. Helvetas is supporting around 160,000 Rohingya and locals living in the villages next to the camps in their fight against COVID-19:

  • Information, education and prevention: Helvetas has trained Rohingya volunteers to educate the population about the disease, its causes, symptoms, transmission routes and prevention measures so that people are informed in their own language and there is no risk of infection from outsiders. They distribute leaflets with easy-to-understand rules of conduct.
  • Distribution of emergency hygiene articles: Helvetas also distributes vouchers for hygiene kits via Rohingya volunteers. These kits contain the most basic necessities: a 20-litre bucket, a 1.5-litre container for water, soap with a soap dish, disinfectant and powder for making a disinfectant solution. The refugees can pick up the material at reference points where they can also get food.
  • Distribution of seeds and emergency financial aid: Helvetas has provided seed and financial aid to families in particular need.
  • Improving sanitation facilities: Helvetas has helped to improve hygiene and sanitation from the very beginning and helped to build latrines. Now the NGO has ensured that health posts in the camp have hand washing stations, soap and disinfectant, and that heavily frequented places have hand washing stations.

Preparing for monsoon season

The Helvetas project, which is supported by the independent charity Swiss Solidarity, not only helps to improve the health of refugees, it also promotes environmental protection, as families no longer have to search for wood, which was becoming increasingly scarce. Moreover, the sanitation facilities, combined with hygiene courses, are preventing drinking water from being contaminated by faeces and diseases like cholera from spreading.

Helvetas is responsible for administering three camps with a total of 100,000 refugees on behalf of UNHCR. The aim is to improve the transmission of information between the communities and the different organisations represented in the camps in order to ensure that the relief measures have maximum impact. On the infrastructure side, Helvetas is making preparations for monsoon season and maintenance. This includes helping refugees who were living in particularly at-risk areas to move to safer locations.

© Kieran McConville/Concern Worldwide
© Kieran McConville/Concern Worldwide
© Kieran McConville/Concern Worldwide
© Kieran McConville/Concern Worldwide
© Barbara Dietrich / Helvetas
© Barbara Dietrich / Helvetas
© Wikimedia Commons

Safety of women and children

Helvetas also champions the safety of women and children. Committees for women, young people and religious leaders were set up to ensure a better flow of information between communities and the humanitarian organisations on the ground. Their task is to relay important information from other women living in their area.

Women talk in meetings about issues such as domestic violence or difficulties related to their periods – for example, where they can dry their sanitary towels discretely, given the lack of space in their shelters. «The participants have the opportunity here to learn something new and to find out about subjects they have perhaps never spoken about or know nothing about. In one of these workshops, the participants discussed their menstrual cycle. They had no idea how the biological process works but were very curious and keen to learn,» explains Mostafa, who is responsible for coordinating safety measures on the ground, and who also trains the volunteers.

Support for vegetable growing

With the support of Swiss Solidarity, Helvetas is helping refugee families to grow their own vegetables on top of and next to their huts. This improves the refugees' food supply and is a step towards reducing their dependence on humanitarian aid. The project also involves local families, who have welcomed the refugees with open arms, as it is important to prevent conflict.

Since the camp has grown extremely rapidly, and unchecked, some essential groundwork is required: on behalf of UNICEF, Helvetas is mapping the camp. The educational needs of the Rohingyas must be identified, for example.

© Barbara Dietrich / Helvetas
© Barbara Dietrich / Helvetas

Helvetas will continue to advocate for the protection of the weakest and most vulnerable people against dangers such as human trafficking, sexual violence and poor hygiene. The women's committees have already chosen the discussion topics for their workshops in 2019. These include non-violent communication, human rights and nutrition.

Other topics of interest

© Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation


Preparing for climate change and promoting political participation, especially among women, are among our objectives.

Voice, Inclusion & Cohesion

In many countries where we work, men and women are unable to claim their rights and participate actively in decision-making processes.

Humanitarian Response

In recent years there has been a global rise in disasters. Earthquakes, droughts, floods and cyclones turn years of development progress to dust overnight.

How Helvetas Supports People in Myanmar

Learn how the rural communities in Myanmar improve their income and strengthen civil society in its new role.